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Foxtrot_Sim

How far am I?

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Hi guys!

So I (14) might be starting ground-school within the next year, and I just want to know how much I know about aviation, and see if I can run into it head first, or slow down. So ask me a question, any question about Start-up process- walk around- taxi- departure- auto-pilot- landing. Just NO questions about the history of an aircraft company.

That would be great guys, I know there are many pilots in AVSIM, so help a younger soon-to-be pilot get a jump start.

-Thanks!  Dmitri S.

 

P.S. Can someone message me about VOR's? I know NOTHING about them! It can be a video on YouTube, or a lecture I can read (make it long and detailed).

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If you find a discrepancy during preflight and aren't sure of the airworthiness of the airplane, where can you look to determine if you can still go and fly?

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Window heat is used to make the glass of the cockpit window pliable-ish. This will help the window NOT form cracks in the event of a bird strike. (I see the misconception is that people think that it will prevent ice formation) It's also a nice warm pillow for when the pilot needs to take a nap. lol.

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Window heat is used to make the glass of the cockpit window pliable-ish. This will help the window NOT form cracks in the event of a bird strike. (I see the misconception is that people think that it will prevent ice formation) It's also a nice warm pillow for when the pilot needs to take a nap. lol.

Absolutely correct. (especially the warm pillow :lol:) If you want to really put your knowledge to the test, join VATSIM. I have lost track of the amount if useful knowledge I have gained by joining this community. I personally find it really pays off and gives a feeling of satisfaction once you get the hang of it. It adds a new dimension to FS.

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Some helpful information on navigation -

 

From the FAA:  http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/pilot_handbook/media/PHAK%20-%20Chapter%2015.pdf

(this is from the FAA's Pilot Handbook - http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/pilot_handbook/

 

Navigation - written for sim flying but applies to the RW - http://www.navfltsm.addr.com/index.htm


And - your question:

 

For an aircraft equipped with a servo trim tab - to trim nose up (i.e., to relieve the need to apply back pressure on the stick / yoke to hold straight and level) which direction does the trim tab move?  (Extra credit if you can give the formula or at least state the principle of mechanics that is involved).

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Thank you Crimtye. TXHills, thanks for the links, I will check them all out when I get home from school. Answer to the question: To adjust the pitch of a plane using the servo trim tab, pull (or flick) the tab down to trim (pitch) up, and push the tab up to trim (pitch) downwards. This is done by a wire (I think) that goes from the trim tab, to a small cut-out on the elevator that causes the overall pitch of the plane to go up or down.

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To adjust the pitch of a plane using the servo trim tab, pull (or flick) the tab down to trim (pitch) up, and push the tab up to trim (pitch) downwards. This is done by a wire (I think) that goes from the trim tab, to a small cut-out on the elevator that causes the overall pitch of the plane to go up or down.

 

 

Correct - the trim tab moves in the opposite direction of the intended trim relief.  The principle is that of equalizing the moment about the axis of rotation of the elevator.  Because the (small) trim tab is set farther away from the axis of rotation of the elevator the moment arm (the 'length of the lever') is longer, so the relatively small force from the trim tab is able to move the larger (surface area) elevator in the opposite direction.  Most small aircraft have adjustable trim tabs (usually controlled by a cable - pulley mechanism) for the elevators and in some cases for the rudder - but some have a small fixed trim tab for the rudder (bendable if needed - but you shouldn't if it is not your airplane).  Aileron trim can also be found in some small aircraft but usually in the larger / more complex type.

 

It will be helpful if you have a good idea on the fundamentals of the mechanics of flight and of geometry - this will help your understanding of everything from why G-forces increase in a level turn to how much correction in your heading you must have to compensate for winds flowing at an angle to your intended direction of flight.  (And provides the answer to the people in your math class who ask 'why does anybody need to know this stuff - you don't use it in real life!?!' :rolleyes: )

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Absolutely correct. (especially the warm pillow :lol:) If you want to really put your knowledge to the test, join VATSIM. I have lost track of the amount if useful knowledge I have gained by joining this community. I personally find it really pays off and gives a feeling of satisfaction once you get the hang of it. It adds a new dimension to FS.

Having a warm window certainly can help if you hit a bird, but it is not the only reason we turn it on. We do turn it on to prevent ice forming on it and to keep it from fogging over. Warm windows aren't going to help one bit if there is a goose with your name on it. Windows do ice and fog over, and we do like to be able to look out front when landing.

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To a repair hangar. Or have a certified aircraft mechanic check it out.

Not neccesarily. You check your mimimum equipment list if there is one for the plane. That spells out what inoperative equipment you can fly with. If there is none for your plane, then if you fly under FAA rules, you can check 91.213d to see if you can still fly with that piece of broken equipment.

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Thanks guys for the replies! I will definitely read more about airframe damage, and airworthiness inceptions. Thanks KevinAu for the information about minimum requirements for flight, and how to check them.

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Cross country flight - Dead reckoning - Leg 1

 

Cessna 172 - assume cruise TAS of 110 knots

Austin-Bergstrom (KAUS) to Pecan Plantation (0TX1)  (due north by my sectional but you can specify your own true heading if yours differs)

Winds from 120 deg at 10 knots (METAR report)

 

  1. Is the wind direction from the METAR a true or magnetic bearing?
  2. What will be your magnetic heading based on your location and winds (assume winds are steady)?
  3. What other factor inside the aircraft itself needs to be considered when determining the actual magnetic heading you will fly - we will assume that in the particular aircraft this is not a factor - but what I'm asking is what aircraft-specific thing might you need to adjust for when determining your magnetic heading after you have factored in location and winds?
  4. What will be your ground speed?
  5. How long will the trip take?

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Not neccesarily. You check your mimimum equipment list if there is one for the plane. That spells out what inoperative equipment you can fly with. If there is none for your plane, then if you fly under FAA rules, you can check 91.213d to see if you can still fly with that piece of broken equipment.

 

Got part of it! Not quite complete enough though I feel. 

 

KevinAu has mentioned 91.213, which is where to find the information I'm asking for, but a list is (unfortunately) usually what a DPE is wanting to hear.

 

If the aircraft does not have a Minimum Equipment List there are several places you can turn. The list is:

1. FAR 91.205, which is more affectionately known as TOMATO FLAMES.

2. The Kinds of Operations section of the Pilot's Operating Handbook.

3. The VFR Day-Type certificate for the airplane.

4. Any and all Airworthiness Directives available to those who operate aircraft of a specific type. 

 

While I'm here I'll shoot ya another one, keeping it general.

 

What is a spin?

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Tail spin. When a plane will fall out of the sky while it is rotating like a helicopter due to a rudder/aileron failure. This is caused by stall, ending with a corkscrew down. 

 

-TXHills, sorry for the late response, I was unable to do any research on your questions (drama auditions ran a bit long) I only had time to search what a METAR is on my phone. I will TRY to answer all the questions tomorrow.

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Tail spin. When a plane will fall out of the sky while it is rotating like a helicopter due to a rudder/aileron failure. This is caused by stall, ending with a corkscrew down. 

 

-TXHills, sorry for the late response, I was unable to do any research on your questions (drama auditions ran a bit long) I only had time to search what a METAR is on my phone. I will TRY to answer all the questions tomorrow.

 

Just to clarify, are you saying the aileron/rudder failure cause the stall, or vice versa?

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-TXHills, sorry for the late response, I was unable to do any research on your questions (drama auditions ran a bit long) I only had time to search what a METAR is on my phone. I will TRY to answer all the questions tomorrow.

 

No problem.  This will be an aspect of navigation that will definitely be covered in ground school.  Might as well dive into it now.  You might want to start looking into an E6B computer - you can get one along with a plotter for ~ $30 on Amazon.com.

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Mijitman, my English was a bit off, sorry. What I was meaning to say is, a spin is when a plane looses power (ultimately ending in a stall), and starts falling, at the same time, it is corkscrewing down to the ground. This can be over come by opposite rudder, full throttle, and let the airplane fix its self, pitch wise.

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Mijitman, my English was a bit off, sorry. What I was meaning to say is, a spin is when a plane looses power (ultimately ending in a stall), and starts falling, at the same time, it is corkscrewing down to the ground. This can be over come by opposite rudder, full throttle, and let the airplane fix its self, pitch wise.

 

You are about 80% right on this one. In the case of a spin however, you do not want full throttle. It may be logical in that it will accelerate the aircraft at the ground and break the stall, but it actually doesn't do that, it raises the nose, flattening out the spin. When that happens, you can't lower the nose to decrease the angle of attack and break the stall. This can be dangerous for a number of reasons, but the primary is that the spin may flatten to the point of being unrecoverable. 

A good mental checklist for spin recovery is PEAR:

 

Power - idle

Elevator - forward

Ailerons - neutral

Rudder - full opposite direction of spin

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Do keep in mind that the way to avoid a spin is not to stall.  After 1949 the FAA (actually its predecessor the CAA) removed mandatory spin recovery training for private pilots and substituted expanded stall recognition and recovery / avoidance training.  As a result the incidence of stall - spin accidents decreased substantially.

 

In the late 70's NASA looked at a couple of popular non-complex GA aircraft and measured the altitude required for recovery - between 1100 and 1200 feet.  A review of stall-spin accidents in the 1990 decade (OK - can't help myself here, this is the years 1991 through the last year of the decade and the last year of the millennium, the year 2000 - so everyone celebrated the advent of the 21st century a year early) showed that at least 80% occurred at 1000 ft AGL or lower (typical small aircraft pattern altitude).

 

As you can imagine the requirements change in 1949 was not done without considerable argument and dissent.  It appears that the outcome has vindicated the CAA and supports why you will get a lot of training on stall recognition and avoidance, including - and something that your CFI should put special emphasis on - departure stalls and appropriate attitude for approach including correct performance of the slip maneuver (and avoidance of unwanted slip in such situations as overshooting the extended centerline on turn to final and over-applying rudder - or using rudder only - to move back to center).

 

So - I've given you some other things to look - stalls, stall recognition and avoidance and slips - into while you're working on our cross-country flight, leg 1.

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Got part of it! Not quite complete enough though I feel.

 

KevinAu has mentioned 91.213, which is where to find the information I'm asking for, but a list is (unfortunately) usually what a DPE is wanting to hear.

 

If the aircraft does not have a Minimum Equipment List there are several places you can turn. The list is:

1. FAR 91.205, which is more affectionately known as TOMATO FLAMES.

2. The Kinds of Operations section of the Pilot's Operating Handbook.

3. The VFR Day-Type certificate for the airplane.

4. Any and all Airworthiness Directives available to those who operate aircraft of a specific type.

 

Well, that is a list of what part of 91.213d is about, and if we are to go into detail then there are some important points to understanding 91.213d that is missing in that answer. Primarily the operative words of 'cannot be required' in relation to those listed bullet points. There is also a fifth bullet point in 91.213d that got left out; it cannot be indicated as required on the aircraft's equipment list. And there are also actions that need to be taken once you've determined through the 91.213d process that you can indeed fly with this inoperative equipment. All of which an examiner will expect to hear from your mouth.

 

Basically, if you walk out to your little flight school rental C152 and find something inoperative, look in the seatback pockets to see if there is a MEL document in there. If there is one, then find that item on that list and follow the steps. If the item is not on that list, then you are dead in the water and will need to call a mechanic. If there is no MEL document, then pull out your FARs and open up to 91.213d and follow its steps. Those steps will have you check that it is:

 

- not one of the day vfr instruments required. That is it cannot be one of your most basic required instruments. Check in 91.205 for what these are.

- not required on the aircraft's equipment list. In most GA planes, the weight and balance list in the operating handbook will provide this information.

- not required by the kind of flight operation. So you would check 91.205 again to see if it is required for the kind of flying you are about to do, such as night flying. Check other sections like 91.207 if you are going ifr, etc.

- not required by airworthiness directives. Unless you are the owner of the plane and know the maintenance history of it, there probably is no easy way to check for that as a renter. You will probably have to check with the flight school's maintenance for the answer to this one.

- If it passes all the above steps, then you will deactivate it and placard it 'inoperative'. Which means you turn it off and put a sticker somewhere indicating its inoperative status. In some cases, you may need maintenance to perform this.

 

Only if the equipment fails to meet these requirements for going without, will you need to call a mechanic to fix it.

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There is also a fifth bullet point in 91.213d that got left out; it cannot be indicated as required on the aircraft's equipment list.

 

To explain, I left the equipment list out of my answer because in many cases it's in the Kinds of Operations in the POH. It varies from airplane to airplane and I agree it's important to understand the reg, but to teach students to look in section 2 for that information is a safe bet. As long as you teach that there's an equipment list you're looking for any private pilot worth their salt "should" deduce that. It's instructor discretion and situation dependent ultimately I suppose!

Further, my original question (for the sake of concision) was just "where" to look, not the full thrust of what to do. Good to have it in here for ValleyDeer's reference though. 

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