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Guest Nesca

Query about "circling" on some Instrument Approach charts

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Guest Nesca

Hi,I've recently been starting to use navigation charts for use with FS 2002 and I'm finding the learning process quite enjoyable. I think I know the basics, such as SIDs , STARs, IAPs, procedure turns etc. Enough to enable me to interpret most charts.But right now I'm a bit stuck on some charts that have "Circling" writtten on them. An example I'm currently trying to figure out is some Santorini charts, to be seen here;http://fs-sim.no-ip.org/Charts/LGSR.pdfThis has 3 Instrument Approach charts, and two of them are labelled "Circling". By this do they mean "Circle To Land" as I think, or is it referring to a circling holding pattern?Also on the "Circling NDB" Approach Chart (last page of the PDF) I'm confused about the circling instructions. I tried following the path to the NDB, then when it passed underneath me I turned at standard rate to 305 for 3 minutes as per the instructions and then turned to the "final approach course" of 125. Yet this course ins't aligned with the runway. Since the cirlcling pattern lines are in bold ink I assume they're guiding me to a landing, but I don't understand why if that is so it doesn't put me on the proper course for a landing.I've tried surfing the net to see if anything could clarify, but so far what I've read has only confused me more. If anyone can help I'd very much appreciate it!

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IF what you are attempting is circle to land or any other nonprecision approach, all that the approach is intended for is to putyou in visual range of the runway. VOR approaches as well as NDB-GPSwill almost NEVER put you on a runway heading. In the case of circle to land the minimums will be considerablyhigher than a precision approach because visual contact MUST be maintained or else a missed approach should be executed. Most ofen on a VOR approach the VOR radial will intersect theextended centerline of the runway some distance from the thresholdrequireing a turn to runway heading after visual aquisition.

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Guest bennyboy

Nesca,A 'circling' approach means simply that, i.e. there is a portion of the approach which involves a turn, as you've been doing.The minima for the NDB approach is pretty high, i.e. by 1800 feet (in a large aircraft, at least) you'd need to be visual with the runway. Even though you're not aligned with the runway directly, you'd have plenty of height in which to position yourself to line up on such an approach.You'll notice that the first approach, the VOR straight in to land (in other words, not a circling approach), has a lower minima - 1200 feet.

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Guest Nesca

Thanks very much for those answers Delta November and bennyboy, it's definitely clarifiied things to me!

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