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  1. jpgmulti

    Rule of thumb approach speeds

    No, I did not give the definitive answer. I only gave ONE answer by copying/pasting an Ops manual of an airline using Q400s. Other airlines would be slightly different but always basing the calculations on Vref. Regarding Vref, when I was a young boy it was Vsx1.3 and now it is x1.23. Things change when performances change. When you learn flying you are tought how to recover from a stall but you are not a test pilot and you do not establish yourself the stall speeds in different configurations to make all the calculations. In our case it has been done by Bombardier and you just follow the TOLD cards or AURASIM. Personnally I do not think we should discuss this particular problem here as it has nothing do do with AIRLINE2SIM. We should do it on the MAJESTIC FORUM. I take this opportunity to congratulate AIRLINE2SIM on their videos which are a great help when you want to fly the sim single handed as it is designed for two pilots. Carry on the good work. Regards. JP
  2. jpgmulti

    Rule of thumb approach speeds

    Hello, From one of the largest Q400 operator: 2.12.8 Final Approach Speed The final approach speed (VAPP) is the target speed for the final approach once the landing configuration has been established. Typical VREF values are 100 to 130 kts; so VREF provides a margin of between 20 to 30 kts above the stalling speed. During a moderately turbulent approach, variations in IAS of up to 20 kts might occur. A reduction in speed could bring the aircraft close to the stalling speed. In turbulent air, it is acceptable to target a speed above VREF on the final approach in order to maintain an adequate margin over the stall. VAPP is calculated by applying a gust factor to VREF. VAPP = VREF + gust factor. The gust factor is half the variation in wind speed or 10 kts whichever is the lower. It does not depend on the direction of the wind and is not bugged. For example, if the wind is reported as 20 kts gusting 28, the gust factor is 4 kts. Note: If VREF is already enhanced for any reason, then VAPP = VREF and the approach is flown “on the bug”. 2.12.9 Threshold Speed The threshold speed is the speed at which the aircraft should cross the threshold. The basic threshold speed is VREF. The aim is always to reduce the final approach speed such that the threshold is crossed at VREF. If the threshold is crossed at speeds above VREF, the safety margins on landing distance may not be met. 2.12.10 Touchdown Speed The touchdown speed is the speed at which the aircraft touches down. If the threshold is crossed at VREF and if the normal flare manoeuvre is performed, the touchdown speed is normally 5 to 6 kts below VREF. Hope this helps. Regards JP