Jack8505

Operational Procedure Help!

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Hi! I'm currently taking up virtual flying in a flight sim, and want to be realistic as I can whilst also being very strapped for time during my day! I've tried to come up with a set procedure for my flights as shown below, but this is only based off of googling, observing FR24, and asking some people a few questions. Please keep in mind that I know that these might not be hard set procedures that happen every time, but I am going to be flying many different aircraft (737-A380) as many different airlines in this sim - and my question is that, would my procedures below be realistic? Maybe not super accurate for each individual airline and aircraft, but if it happend would anyone see it as odd or would it just seem normal?


Nav and Beacon Lights On
Pushback - during which start engine 1
Start Engine 2 immediately after
Set Flaps and Trim after both engines started (or just when one has started?)
Taxi Lights On
Taxi to runway with thrust of no more than 40%N1
Takeoff with rotation pitch of about 5 degrees
Then 5 second increase to 15 degree Angle of attack
At 1000AAL decrease thrust by about 5% whilst lowering the nose to 10 degrees
Accleerate to flap retraction speed
Then increase Angle of attack for 3000FPM (weight dependent)

At 10,000 landing lights off, decrease FPM to 2000, accelerate to 290
At 26,000ft decrease FPM to 1000
1000ft before climb altitude decrease FPM to 500 

For descent;

    ⁃    Use 3* the number of thousand feet you want to lose + 1 extra mile for every -10 knots of tailwind
    ⁃    Descend at cruise mach (or a little below cruise mach?)
    ⁃    Until about 280 knots
    ⁃    Then maintain 280 down to 12000
    ⁃    At 12,000 decrease FPM to 500 in order to slow to 250
    ⁃    Maintain 250 until about 20 miles out
    ⁃    At that point slow to 220
    ⁃    Then to 180+first set of flaps about 15 miles out/base
    ⁃    Then slow to 160 when establishing on final + second set of flaps
    ⁃    Hold that until about 5 miles out
    ⁃    Then 3rd and 4th set of flaps, gear down - fully configured before 1000ft

    ⁃    Reverese thrust to 70 knots GS
    ⁃    Then idle engines and activate brakes
    ⁃    Exit at about 20 knots and disarm/retract flaps/spoilers whilst exiting
    ⁃    Switch off landing and strobe lights once past the hold short
    ⁃    Then taxi to stand, turn off both engines at stand if they have had 3 minutes cool down time


Apart from the question marks in brackets above I have a few more questions?

1.)In heavies, e.g quadjets like the 747,380 and 340, in what order are the engines started and should I be starting two or three at once? If not, what order and what is the interval between them, as a general rule of thumb?

2.) The flight sim I use doesn't have a complex FMC or anything along those lines yet, so descents are manually done. I usually descend anywhere from about 1500FPM to 2700FPM. Are these about right? Also, is it okay for me to be reguarly changing that just a little or would an airliner usually just maintain a constant FPM without changing that at all? I just keep recalculating acoording to that same rule at different altitudes to see if I am descending too fast or too slow and then alter as needed. Also, when descending at -2500FPM in the 380 etc, I feel like my downwards pitch is too excessive? Is it okay provided that my FPM is sensible?

3.) Doing flights around the world in many different aircraft as many different airlines, would it be totally unrealistic of me to never use single engine taxi in or out? I'm currently testing an alpha version of the sim so nobody is ever really around, so my taxi times in and out tend to be too quick for both.

4.) If doing a step climb, what FPM should I be doing it at?

5.) I don't have access to or time to look at plates for airports, but I know some have special SID's and STAR's. If I just look up the flight path of the equivalent real world flight in FlightRadar24 and imitate the best I can at the departure and arrival phases of flight, is that likely to be relatively realistic even if not completely?

Anybody who can legitimately and accurately answer any of these, please do so, it would be much appreciated! Thanks a bunch guys!

 

P.a I don't seem to be able to post this in the correct category - if somebody with such an ability would be kind enough to move it, it would be much appreciated. Cheers.

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Where to even begin....

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

Nav and Beacon Lights On

You'd have the navigation lights on whenever the plane is powered, so presumably they were already on when you were sitting at the gate. The beacon lights come on when the plane's about to move, so when you're ready for pushback and the doors are closed, you'd throw them on.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

Pushback - during which start engine 1
Start Engine 2 immediately after

Aircraft dependent and airline procedure dependent. On a Boeing 747-400, it is possible that you might start engine 4 first. Consequently, on the same aircraft, it is also possible to start two engines at the same time.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

Set Flaps and Trim after both engines started (or just when one has started?)

I would have thought trim was set prior to pushback, but I could be wrong. In my experience, flaps were set prior to taxi-out, so if you've started both engines, that would generally happen after both engines are started. I only mention this point because some airlines have tried to save fuel by performing a single-engine taxi. I have personally experienced this with a Boeing 757-200 at JFK.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

Taxi Lights On

Do you need them? If so, yes. During the day, you might not actually need them. This would ultimately also depend on whether the plane even has them, as British Airways apparently does not have them on their Boeing 747-400s.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

Taxi to runway with thrust of no more than 40%N1

As far as I'm aware, this is usually the restriction at the ramp, and that's to prevent stuff from being blown around. I'm not sure about when you're actually on the taxiway.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

Takeoff with rotation pitch of about 5 degrees
Then 5 second increase to 15 degree Angle of attack

I usually pull up to 8 degrees initially. Depending on the plane, it could easily be a smooth rotation straight to 15 degrees, I think. I could be wrong. I think you'd normally rotate around two degrees per second.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

At 1000AAL decrease thrust by about 5% whilst lowering the nose to 10 degrees
Accleerate to flap retraction speed
Then increase Angle of attack for 3000FPM (weight dependent)

If you're flying a plane that has LNAV and VNAV capability (I'm not sure what add-ons you're using, so I can't assume things), you'd already have those armed, in which case, the FMC would have calculated the optimal climb gradient. Your thrust reduction could take place at either a specific altitude or I guess I've seen an option for a specific flap setting, so I guess that's airline dependent. In any event, you'd be maintaining a constant thrust throughout the climb along with a constant speed, adjusting your pitch accordingly, so ignore the vertical speed.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

At 10,000 landing lights off, decrease FPM to 2000, accelerate to 290
At 26,000ft decrease FPM to 1000
1000ft before climb altitude decrease FPM to 500 

See the last sentence above.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

    ⁃    Use 3* the number of thousand feet you want to lose + 1 extra mile for every -10 knots of tailwind
    ⁃    Descend at cruise mach (or a little below cruise mach?)
    ⁃    Until about 280 knots
    ⁃    Then maintain 280 down to 12000

There are many factors that you have to take into consideration, namely your approach procedures. Do any of them have restrictions? You'd have to look at the charts, but normally, the FMC will have figured out the optimal descent path.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

    ⁃    At 12,000 decrease FPM to 500 in order to slow to 250

The FMC will take this into account, but I think it generally puts you at 240. Remember, you're going down.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

    ⁃    Maintain 250 until about 20 miles out
    ⁃    At that point slow to 220

Approach procedures and ATC instructions will determine this.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

    ⁃    Then to 180+first set of flaps about 15 miles out/base
    ⁃    Then slow to 160 when establishing on final + second set of flaps
    ⁃    Hold that until about 5 miles out
    ⁃    Then 3rd and 4th set of flaps, gear down - fully configured before 1000ft

Aircraft dependent with regards to flap settings. The flap settings you've described are more fitting for an Airbus, but Boeing jets tend to have more flap settings. In any event, your flap settings ultimately depend on the weight, but it would tell you on the speed tape on the PFD, so you know when to start dropping the flaps. On a Boeing 747-400, you might already have to start dropping the flaps at 220 knots. As for the speed with respect to distance from the airport, that's dependent on airport procedures and ATC instructions.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

 ⁃    Reverese thrust to 70 knots GS

Usually 60 knots, but in any event, use of reverse thrust is situation dependent. You don't necessarily need to use full reverse, or any at all. If you are trying to get further down the runway to shorten taxi time, you might only need idle reverse, or you might not need reverse thrust at all.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

 ⁃    Then idle engines and activate brakes

Generally speaking, you'd have the autobrakes already armed prior to landing, in which case, they would have already automatically activated once you touched down. Once you get down to 60 knots, then you'd want to be braking manually.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

   ⁃    Exit at about 20 knots and disarm/retract flaps/spoilers whilst exiting

This one depends on where you exit the runway. If you're exiting at a high-speed taxiway (shallow turn), you can get off the runway at a higher speed than that. If you're having to make a 90-degree turn, you do have to do it slowly.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

    ⁃    Switch off landing and strobe lights once past the hold short

Basically.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

 ⁃    Then taxi to stand, turn off both engines at stand if they have had 3 minutes cool down time

Make sure you've started the APU first.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

1.)In heavies, e.g quadjets like the 747,380 and 340, in what order are the engines started and should I be starting two or three at once? If not, what order and what is the interval between them, as a general rule of thumb?

Depends on the airline. Some airlines start them one at a time, some start them two at once. I know of no airline that would start three at once. The order that you start them is airline dependent. I've always start 3 and 4 first, followed by 1 and 2. Some do it 4, 3, 2, 1. I think one airline does it 4, 1, 2, 3, from what I've read.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

2.) The flight sim I use doesn't have a complex FMC or anything along those lines yet, so descents are manually done. I usually descend anywhere from about 1500FPM to 2700FPM. Are these about right? Also, is it okay for me to be reguarly changing that just a little or would an airliner usually just maintain a constant FPM without changing that at all? I just keep recalculating acoording to that same rule at different altitudes to see if I am descending too fast or too slow and then alter as needed. Also, when descending at -2500FPM in the 380 etc, I feel like my downwards pitch is too excessive? Is it okay provided that my FPM is sensible?

Okay, so I guess ignore half of what I said above, as I was responding to each question as I read it. In any case, as I said, on climb-out, you would be maintaining a constant thrust and a constant speed, adjusting your pitch accordingly to maintain speed, so ignore the vertical speed. On descent, if you're at idle thrust, you'd also try to maintain your speed, adjusting your pitch accordingly and using speed brakes as necessary.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

3.) Doing flights around the world in many different aircraft as many different airlines, would it be totally unrealistic of me to never use single engine taxi in or out? I'm currently testing an alpha version of the sim so nobody is ever really around, so my taxi times in and out tend to be too quick for both.

I have only ever been on one real-world flight where a single-engine taxi was performed, and that was because we were stuck in a very long line trying to take off out of JFK. In any event, I think a single-engine taxi would be restricted to small and medium planes. I seriously doubt a heavy 777 is going to be doing it, and I don't think a 747 would do it at all.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

4.) If doing a step climb, what FPM should I be doing it at?

You'd go to climb thrust, then adjust your pitch accordingly to maintain your speed.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

5.) I don't have access to or time to look at plates for airports, but I know some have special SID's and STAR's. If I just look up the flight path of the equivalent real world flight in FlightRadar24 and imitate the best I can at the departure and arrival phases of flight, is that likely to be relatively realistic even if not completely?

Eh....you'd be better off having a look at the charts. There are many factors that come into play that you might not get from FlightRadar24.

3 hours ago, Jack8505 said:

I don't seem to be able to post this in the correct category - if somebody with such an ability would be kind enough to move it, it would be much appreciated. Cheers.

As this is your first post, it would appear the only place you can post is here for the time being. This is to prevent spam on the forums. One of the administrators will have to manually adjust this.

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Welcome to the forum, great questions and great answers.  A moderator cannot move your post to the appropriate forum as you have not indicated which sim or addons are in use.

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Here. I know I'm kind of plugging my own video here, but watch the take-off, climb, descent, and landing, and this will give you an idea as to how best to deal with this. You'll note the constant thrust on climb-out, adjusting pitch to maintain speed. I bring the landing up because you'll note that I don't actually use any reverse thrust on this landing. Given where I landed on the runway and where I intended to exit the runway, there was no need to use it. I probably could have done away with the autobrakes if I really wanted to, and just applied very light manual braking as necessary.

 

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