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old_doggie

Precise ILS procedure

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Dear all,It took almost a month of my time until I've mastered good take-offs on Boeing 747-400. The real challenge to me however, is the ILS landings, for I can reach the airport, try not to miss a single point and instructions highlighted in the Precision and Non-precision Approach Manuals and to practice these instructions during my flights but fail to land my plane 1) in time; 2) with good ILS procedure and 3) in compliance with the sequence required to switch necessary gauges such as APP and AP keys, etc. I would be grateful therefore, if someone could explain me the correct ILS procedure for specifically Boeing 747-400 plus the sequence of switch turn-ons and turn-offs.Thank you.Bina from Bina Intl. Airport, Baku, AZERBAIJANP.S.: Sorry for my English if you, the reader, find any mistake.

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T attempt to explain the ILS procedures in this format would be a huge undertaking so might I suggest you try any one of a number of great navigation sites such as http://www.navfltsm.addr.com/index.htm which I found to be very helpful. Also, have you tried approaches on smaller aircraft working your way up to the 747? It mmight be a little too heavy, fast and complicated for a learning environment.

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Hmm.... ILS with a Heavy? WOW.Remember the 6Ts: Turn, Time, Tune, Throttle, Track, Talk. (Repeat this a 1,000 times)This is for GA. When you approach the FAF (Final approach Fix). Apply the 6Ts religiously. 1. turn towards the final Crs. (Most often a turn is not required, it would be the same crs..as just before the FAF. However,,,not always)2. Start the Timer. (this is required..if the vertigal guidence goes on you..and it becomes a non precision approach... you then switch to the non precision approach and find your MAP based on your time).3. Tune to the ILS or Vor Frequency (You should have done this already..but still a final check).4. Set the Throttle to the appropriate level. You should know this by know...after all...you are a good pilot to be flying IFR. ;)5. Track the final crs.6. Talk to the controller (This is low priority)Other tips.a. Don't chase the needle. Fly a specific heading.b. DO NOT change attitude or turn without looking at the attitude indicator. When you are either starting a turn or changing the attitude, Look at the Attitude indicator while making these change. Do not change attitude or turn while looking at any other instrument. Once you are happy with the seting a 10degree change for eg. trim and then shift your eyes to to the other instruments. Know your instrument scan procedure. Leave the yoke alone at this stage. c. If you are going to stare...stare at the attitude indicator.d. Know your pitch attitude, Power setting and speed for the approach for that airplane.e. Small corrections early.

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THANK YOU ALL! Great advice!Just expanding the issue:Assume that I'm flying the final leg to RWY 34R, which has no ILS frequency. To do this, I turn on BACKCOURSE button with A/P ON and NAV1 tuned to ILS freq of RWY 16L. Altitude is 3,000ft AGL. I intercept both localizer and glide slope but when i am one half mile from the airport the BACKCOURSE turns off and i loss some altitude and the plane speeds up with nose up. This makes me crazy after a two hour smooth flight and I really don't know what to do. The same happens even when i can intercept the LOC and GS on ILS freq-provided runway (i.e., direct APPROACH without BACKCOURSE). I LOSS ALTITUDE, that is the problem.May be this will clarify the issue. Which buttons should be ON and which OFF? Thanks again.BINA

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Hi BINA,One thing I see, being not that knowledgeable, is that on a backcourse ILS there is no glideslope available. Any of the more experienced pilots/simmers out there can correct me if I am wrong. I have successfully flown approaches with no ILS but having an ILS on the reciprocal runway. I only get lateral guidance from the autopilot for these and I must manually control the descent. Hope that helps.DanS

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Donny AKA ShalomarFly 2 ROCKS!!!The ILS system is set up usually for a 3 to one descent ratio. This is a misleading term, it means traveling 3 miles for each 1000 feet of altitude loss. Therefore, 6 miles from touchdown you should be at 2,000 feet AGL. An ILS-DME is especially useful. GPS usually uses field midpoint, not the threshold to determine distance. You should use the glideslope indicator to stay on the vertical path when available, but knowing the ratio can help you make corrections more precisely. The folllowing procedure works in ANY aircraft:To determine descent rate first find your groundspeed. This can be seen on GPS or it is your true airspeed minus wind. (If you use these formulas and keep getting higher on the glideslope, think about a different runway cuz you have a tailwind, period.)Move the decimal point one place to the left or drop the last digit. Thus if you are descending at 140 knots, 14.Divide by half. 7This is the what your descent rate should be to mantain the glideslope in hundreds of feet per minute, 700If you have a glideslope and are slightly high, you would of course increase your rate of descent. but knowing the baseline value is an aid. On the reciprocal, WHERE THE GLIDESLOPE INDICATORS ARE REFLECTIONS AND DANGEROUS TO FOLLOW, or at runways that do not have a glideslope but do have the lateral component, knowing the 3 to one ratio helps too. 6 miles out, 2000 AGL 1 mile out about 333 AGL which if you don't see the runway you should DEFINITELY head somewhere that has better weather or a glideslope. Actual FAA minimums are usually higher because of the imprecise nature of this method and possible terrain. Some runways have ILS's at both ends but flite sims usually have problems getting the centerline right if the freq is identical. So some sims assign different freqs which solves the issue though it is different from real world.Even descending from cruise: 300 knots 30 15 1500 FPMPilots of unpressurized aircraft usually follow a 6 to one ratio for passenger comfort till the localiser. But if a 747 becomes unpressurised the last thing the cap will be thinking 'bout is passenger comfort.Best Regards, Donny

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