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  1. Abrupto,In addition to the other poster the following is also correct.Parked at the gate: NAV lights ON/OFF (depends if dark)Pushback and starting engines: BEACON lights ONReady to taxi: TAXI lights and runway turnoffs ON/OFF (depends if dark)Entering the rwy: STROBE lights ON and All forward lights (Landing, Taxi, turn off) ONAfter Take off : Landing lights OFFClimbing: @FL100 LOGO lights off (if required, some are automatic)Cruising: As requiredDescending: @FL100 LOGO lights on (see above)Leaving the rwy; LANDING lights OFF, STROBE lights OFF, TAXI and turnoff lights ON/OFF if darkTurning on to stand: TAXI and turnoff lights OFFShutdown: BEACON OFFIn all honesty I wouldn't worry too much about it. Despite any rules regulation and SOPs just use your common sense. If it's dark NAV lights are a good idea. When facing other aircraft or ground staff turn the forward facing lights off (it blinds them). If you can't see where you're going, turn the taxi light on. The Beacon is to warn people the aircraft is "live" so on before start and after shutdown (when it's safe to approach the engines). Strobes say the aircraft is (about to be) airborne so ON on a runway or in the air, otherwise off. In the US I believe lots of people don't turn the landing lights ON until they've clearance to take off which is a nice idea.Don't sweat it and don't forget it's fun flying these aircraft not a mind numbing chore, enjoy it. There's no death penalty for getting it wrong, the beacon is really the only important one, the rest just make the aircraft look pretty.Hope this helps,Ian
  2. Onur,You're right, most flights have the airline callsign and the flight number but this is common practice not law. Technically the airline can use whatever callsign it likes.Some airlines will assign an alpha numeric callsign to a flight if they know there is another flight out there with a similar call sign (Lufty 162 and Lufty 172 for example). To help avoid any potential communication issues they could just call one of them Lufty 16K or something like that. Other airlines change the callsign on 4 digit flight numbers because Lufty 4691 can be a bit of a mouthful if you're saying it for a few hours (not that Lufty 16KA is any better but you get my point). Other airlines just make up callsigns as they see fit.To answer your question succinctly, there is little/no logic to callsigns, they are what they are.Hope this helps,Ian
  3. Just for a bit more "real" info, I don't want to take away from anything Jeff has said but here's some differences that are still "real". Not knowing who Jeff flies for or what he flies means it's difficult to tell if the differences are because of the type or just the SOPs.>Prior to>pushback, the APU will get fired up. Could be 5 min, could be>15+. The bleed air is necessary to start the engines. EXT>PWR gets pulled a few minutes before departure. The pushback guys pull the external power (after confirming with us first), anything between -30 and +60 from departure.>The>jetbridges that we have won't move unless the external power>cord is retracted. The ground air will get shut off by the>ramp crew when the packs are running but, usually gets>disconnected about the same time the EXT PWR does. Our external power usually comes from a hole in the ground, sometimes a cart, either way the jetty (or steps) will be removed when they're ready (in fact, if it's steps it's the pushback crew who do it).>During the>push the crew will begin the engine start procedure (You'll>hear the packs being turned off). The APU will be powered>down during the taxi. APU powered down as part of after start checks (unless remote holding).>The APU usually isn't used on arrival>as the engines will continue to provide cool/warm air to the>cabin. The APU is nearly always used on arrival. Often we shut down an engine on the taxi in (to save fuel) so the APU is started shortly after vacating. Don't do this in FS though, the ground handling is so dodgy the aircraft just goes round in circles.>When the brakes are set at the gate, the number two>engine is shut down (This allows the ramp crew to approach and>open the cargo doors), and the Fasten seatbelt light is>extinguished. The number one engine (the captains side)runs>until the bridge is in place and external power is connected. >Once connected and tied the Rampie will bang on the side of>the plane to let the crew know they have power. That is our procedure (roughly) if the APU doesn't work, although we won't let anyone approach the aircraft with the engines running (ground power hooker upper excepted). If it does, as soon as the brakes are on we shut them both down. We don't turn the seat belt signs or beacon off until both engines are shut down though. Once we get the bang from downstairs (that always sounds like they're hitting the aircraft just a bit too hard) we switch to external power. Give it 30 seconds to stabilise then switch off the APU if you're feeling lucky. >Adam, this might bum you out but it's pretty rare for the>flight crew to shut down an aircraft, even after the last>flight of the day. We usually ask someone, if there's no engineer on arrival and the ground power doesn't work, we're shutting it down. If either of those two are present then we'll leave it running. If there's any ambiguity we'll talk to engineering and they'll tell us what they want. We have checks called Secure, which sets the aircraft up to be left unattended but with/without ground power.Likewise on arrival at the aircraft we don't know what fun the engineers have been having so the aircraft gets a thorough preflight (calling engineering if things aren't how they're supposed to be). This can mean the aircraft is cold and dark, not rare but not common either. >One last thing is that it is far more common for a flight crew>to change planes for their next flight than it is to stay with>the same aircraft over multiple legs.Not in out airline, it's about 60/40 that the flight crew will stay with an aircraft when it transits main base. This saves time and is considerably more convenient for all concerned.I'm sure Jeff is correct in everything he has said but I've just highlighted some of the differences that can still be construed as "real".Hope this helps,Ian
  4. Rob is correct but to add a bit more detail.Flap 1 is actually just slats. You only get this setting if you select Flap 1 in the air (on the ground you get Flap 1+F). This setting is used as you slow down and are positioning yourself on the approach. In real life it adds little drag and increases the engines from flight idle to approach idle (higher). If you're high this setting won't help.Flap 1+F is a takeoff flap setting. It gives you slats (like Flap 1) plus a bit of flap.Flap 2 is a takeoff flap setting. It's also quite a good setting to add drag in the approach. 180Kts Flap 2 gives you a good rate of descent (if you find yourself high) while buying you a good margin above Vls so speedbrake can be used safely.Flap 3 is a takeoff and landing setting.Flap Full is a landing setting.The actual amount of flap/slat you get with each setting depends on the variant (318/19/20/21) and I won't pretend to know (or care a great deal).Hope this helps,Ian
  5. Every airline does it differently, they all work out the relative cost/benefit of each and choose the solution which best fits. However, there are a few places where this gets overruled. Swiss airports are notoriously noise sensitive, they make you land and take off in tailwinds (frighteningly high ones too sometimes) and they have steep approaches to keep you as far away from the watchmakers as possible. Equally once you park up they're pretty good at connecting the aircraft up with ground power. If you haven't switched off the APU by the time the dispatcher gets to the flight deck you'd better have a good excuse as she'll go bananas. I've found it's fun to watch but ultimately better to just turn it off. When it's cold they normally connect the ground air too, although they're less keen on turning it on so they need a bit of prompting and coercion to get it going (I've noticed their English suddenly gets really bad and they shrug a lot).The Germans are fairly noise sensitive too and they normally supply the aircraft with ground power quickly and expect you to use it.At Heathrow, ground power is installed on every stand (I think), it only works on half of them and you have to wait for the appropriately qualified and Union approved Ground Power Hooker Upper to come and plug it in. He normally buggers it up and it falls out a few times so don't be too enthusiastic about turning off the APU, lest you plunge your passengers into darkness (have done that a few times, sigh). Nobody seems too worried if you leave the APU running although the good book says you shouldn't. As Heathrow is our base, engineering come and take the planes away for a manicure and bikini wax during the night so it's not uncommon to arrive at the aircraft in the morning to find it in complete darkness. We are not allowed to leave the aircraft with the APU running so sometimes (when the ground power isn't working or the suitably qualified and Union approved Ground Power Hooker Upper is on his tea break) we have to shut the aircraft down. I will admit to getting a curious warm and fuzzy feeling when I switch an Airbus on or off.In some places we go (Milan Linate and Belgrade spring immediately to mind) we aren't offered ground power and we have to leave the APU running. Sounds shocking but at 120Kg/Hr we don't concern ourselves too much.In general when on stand you get ground power and are expected to use it. If the temperatures are uncomfortable (in either direction) you can either use the APU or request ground air to condition the cabin. The ground air tends to be less effective than the APU at making big changes in cabin temperature and depending on where you are you might find it an awful lot of trouble to get it connected and switched on. If we need to condition the cabin we normally just leave the APU on or turn it on early to make it comfortable for the passengers. Otherwise, off at the gate. Just be careful at night, it really doesn't take much for the ground power to come out and if you're switched off the APU you're disembarking passengers using the emergency lights, very professional...Hope this helps,Ian
  6. Every airline does it differently but the airline I fly for issues us with a Provisional Loadsheet. This is the dispatchers "best guess" at the weight and balance. We enter the figures in the box and work out performance based on those weights + 1t (shorthaul, I don't know what the longhaul boys use).Once the doors are closed they finalise the figures and send them to us by ACARS. Part of our before take off checks are to acknowledge the final loadsheet, if the trim and weights on the final loadsheet are within certain limits from the provisional (where the +1t comes from earlier on in the performance calcs) the loadsheet is said to be in compliance and we do nothing before take off. If the loadsheet has gone out of limits then they issue us with revisions. We then have to redo the performance (or reset the trim) for the new figures. In all honesty it's very rare we have to recalculate the performance, we sometimes have to change the trim though.In flight we update the weights to their correct values.The fuel decision is made separately and we rarely worry too much about payload, the difference in fuel required is usually so small it's not worth the it. Again, the longhaul boys may do but us shorthaul people just don't care.Hope this helps,Ian
  7. >The sidestick is Fly-by-Wire - and a very different concept of>flying.As a RW Airbus FO I disagree, fly the aircraft like it were any other type of aircraft and everything's just fine. Obviously you don't have to worry about trimming (which is a mixed blessing) but just use the joystick in a conventional manner and the aircraft flies like a conventional aircraft. It's designed to be intuitive so don't sweat it and fly normally. I've seen some very competent and experienced Captains get themselves into a whole world of pain by trying to "second guess" the FBW system and "do things differently" because of the computers.>With a yoke you move the elevator and hold the yoke in the>moved position. When you release the yoke, the elevator>returns to the neutral position.>>My understanding of Fly-by-Wire is you move the side stick to>tell the computer how much you want to move the elevator. When>you release the side stick and it centers - that does NOT tell>the elevator to return to the neutral position. You have to>use the side stick to tell the computer to return the elevator>to neutral.Every FBW system is different so it's hard to generalise but in the case of the Airbus, fwd/aft stick controls vertical G loading and left/right controls roll rate. Simple as that. We don't worry about what we think we're telling the computer to do and what it may or may not do given that input, we just fly it like an aircraft and life is good.>With a side stick, a pilot doesn't spend time holding the>control over to maintain a steady bank angle like he does with>a yoke.Assuming FBW, yes but then the same is true (I believe) on a 777 which has a FBW system AND a yoke.>That might be wrong - but we've learned in FSX that the Airbus>system - even as poorly modeled as it is in FS - is very>different than the traditional yoke systems.I'm afraid you're suffered from negative training, a common problem when not using the expensive training aids (read Level D sims) to learn/understand complex multi dimensional real world problems. I've said it before and I'll say it again, fly the aircraft as if it were a normal aircraft and it will fly fine. If you start trying to get clever with it, you will bugger it up. FSX models FBW very poorly, in real life you rarely notice the FBW is even there.Hope this helps,Ian
  8. >Even newly promoted Captains>have higher minimums for a specific period of time during>their initial trips than a regular Captain. Not true at my airline, when you get the stamp saying "Route Check Passed" as a Captain, you hold all the responsibility's of a Captain, if you weren't ready for them, they wouldn't have passed your route check.If the Captain can't fly/operate the aircraft to it's limits, who can?Hope this helps,Ian
  9. Like LeFreak, I was hired straight out of Flight School onto the A319/20/21. Our low vis departures are 75m vis and full Cat IIIb no decision height autolands (the wonderjet is very clever :-)). Everything he said was spot on. Some of the guys on our course had previous turboprop experience so they didn't have to do base training (real aircraft, no pax, I did 8 touch and go's).With regards to what to read before the sim check, we read the manuals. Tech, abnormals, QRH, SOP's. Reminding yourself of the correct procedures (including mouth music) for the different types of emergency's, along with more general thoughts on how to drive the flight along.I've written a small (3 or 4 pages at the moment) Word document to remind me of the sort of thing we have to do (some of it is always the same due licensing requirements). Every time I bugger something up I write in the document so I don't make the same mistake twice. Every time I receive some kind of little gem of information/tip whatever from anyone, that goes in here too.Things are very different the other side of the pond, same result though, just a different method.Hope this helps,Ian
  10. Pretty much what everyone else has said but more general...We usually use our 3 times table for this (eternal) problem of energy management.Very roughly on a three degree slope it's :10nm = 3000ft20nm = 6000ftetc.So at FL360 you'll need about 120nm to descend. For a calculation of top of descent that works quite well.As you get lower and are being vectored about, don't forget to add a few miles to slow down, on the Airbus we usually leave about 10nm from 320kts IAS to green dot (usually around 200ish).Each aircraft flies a bit different so you need to get used to your favourite, you may find it slows down more or less than that.While in the US they like their 250kts below 10,000ft, most of the rest of the world doesn't give a monkeys and will happily let you keep high speed to any altitude, traffic permitting. This can help if you're a bit high, indeed only this morning I was at 310kts, 6000ft going into Oslo.Using this system works just fine in the sim but in the real world the big problem is you often don't know exactly how many miles you have to touchdown. Guessing that is half the game.Of course once you start getting really close to the airport <20nm you can start using flap and/or gear to add drag to rescue a high and fast approach (or indeed when ATC cut your track miles right down). The gear is usually pretty good at killing off energy, even if it is a bit inelegant. Again, you'll need to get to know your aircraft and it's limits/performance. On the Airbus, 180kts and Flap 2 gives you a good rate of descent (1,000 - 1,500 ft/min) and is useful for capturing the glideslope from above if required. From there, gear down about 2,000ft aal (fully established) and flaps out about 10kts below the limit speed should find you nicely stable by 1,000ft aal in all but the strongest tailwinds.Hope this helps, or at least gives you somewhere to start,Ian
  11. Hi all,I'm having problems with AS not finding GEPro. I've searched the forums and found a few posts but they don't quite tell me what I need to know.I understand there is a registry setting that tells AS where GEPro is. I'm guessing mine is wrong (the installation was a bit traumatic due to my using Vista and trying to preserve all my previously generated textures).Please can someone tell me where in the registry AS looks and what it should be pointing at (the main executable?). If I'm wrong about the registry setting, please advise what AS looks for and where it looks to find it.Many thanks,IanP.S. I was never able to find the AS GEPro integration document, if that's the answer please advise where I can find it.
  12. Indeed, real life take off performance calculations do not give any performance credit for an initial run up against the brakes. It will just say you're too heavy.That's exactly what my little FS take off performance calculator does (UTOPIA) :-).Shameless plug over,Ian
  13. Jerry,Without knowing the add on you are talking about (which I doubt I have anyway) it sounds like the autopilot is just lying to you.I have two suggestions :1) When you arm the APP and ALT disappears (you describe as problem #1) that could be normal. It's odd I agree but it could be the autopilots way of telling that G/S capture has been armed (so you're not strictly in ALT any more). So don't click on ALT again (you'll disarm G/S capture and it'll fly right through the glideslope - your problem #2).If, on selecting APP, the aircraft doesn't maintain altitude try suggestion number 2.2) Instead of selecting APP miles out, is there not a LOC button? Select this first and wait until the glideslope comes alive (maybe 1 dot above you) before selecting APP.In real life, the SOP for the airline I fly for is that we are not allowed to arm G/S capture until we are fully established on the LOC so we always select LOC first then APP later.Hope this helps,Ian
  14. >TOGA isn't neccesarily full power, it depends on the setting>in the FMC or Thrust Rating Computer. >If that is set to derated takeoff, TOGA will also derate the>power.Nope, you're dead right, I'm talking Airbus. TOGA in the Airbus is full power but as you correctly point out, on Boeings, TO/GA is whatever take off power you have set in the FMC/Thrust computer.Sorry for the confusion,Ian
  15. Andy,You're about right, don't worry with the brakes though, take off performance allows for a certain amount of rolling, sometimes you get cleared to go before you're lined up so just keep it rolling. Lift them up to around 40 or 50% (for modern high bypass engines, 60% for older straight through turbo jets), when they settle, apply power. We rarely use full power (TOGA) for take off, usually a derate but it doesn't really matter here. The power should be set and stable by 80kts.Keep it on the paved surface and start the pitch up (rotate) when you reach rotate speed (Vr) at about 3 degrees a second. 15 degrees nose up is a fair initial pitch, then adjust to maintain V2 + an amount you're happy with, 10 to 20 is common. Climb out to acceleration altitude (usually 1000ft above the airfield but sometimes more) then set climb power and nose down (about 10 degrees is a good initial guess) and start accelerating to 250kts, retracting the flaps as you are fast enough. Don't descend during this but you may not be climbing that much, 500 to 1500 ft/min. Once you're clean you can start worrying about after take off checks and the like and move on to the climb segment of the flight.Hope this helps,Ian
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