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Found 8 results

  1. Our desktop flight simulators, for all their shortcomings, are quite good platforms for picking up and practicing the basics of instrument flight and navigation. In this short series of articles we will look at the basics of the instrument scan, flying basic manoeuvres on instruments, radio navigation procedures, instrument departures and approaches, and en-route IFR operations. The Instrument Panel The full panel is made up of the 'basic six' flight instruments. These in turn can be divided in to two categories -- the pressure-operated instruments, connected to the aircraft's pitot-static system, and the gyroscopic instruments -- which take their information, as the name suggests, from spinning gyroscopes. The 'full panel' is said to consist of the 'basic six' flight instruments, illustrated above. In modern Western aircraft these are typically laid out in the so-called 'basic T' layout highlighted above. The airspeed indicator (ASI), altimeter and vertical speed indicator (VSI) are the pressure-operated instruments and provide information about airspeed, height and rate of climb or descent. The remaining gyroscopic instruments -- the artificial horizon (or attitude indicator), turn indicator and heading indicator -- provide information about aircraft attitude, rate of turn and aircraft heading. Although modern airliners are equipped with a great deal of sophisticated electronic equipment, the basic six flight instruments and the proper techniques for their use have changed remarkably little since the first 'blind flying' experiments in the 1920s. As an instrument pilot you must learn to trust above all else what you see on the instruments, and become proficient in flying on both the full panel and the limited (or partial) panel. The B747-400 Primary Flight Display retains fundamentally the same 'Basic T' layout as a traditional analogue instrument panel. Photo credit: Markus Vitzethum For a given aeroplane weight and configuration, a particular attitude combined with a particular power setting will always result in a similar flightpath, be that level, climbing, descending or turning. Any change of power and/or attitude results in a change of flightpath and/or airspeed. For this reason, the attitude indicator (AI) and the engine power gauges (RPM, manifold pressure, N1 etc) are known as the control instruments. The remaining instruments are the performance instruments, as they show how the aeroplane is performing as a result of the selected power and attitude. Scanning The first step to becoming a proficient instrument pilot is to develop a good instrument scan. A pilot with a good scan is always looking at meaningful information: simply attempting to scan all the instruments all the time does not achieve this objective! Because power + attitude = performance, the attitude indicator is arguably the most important instrument we have available to us. As long as we have the correct power set on the engine gauges, and are holding the correct attitude on the AI, the performance of the aeroplane will be very close to what we want. Once set it is unusual for the power to change very much, and therefore only occasional glances at the engine gauges are required for confirmation. The attitude, however, will change dynamically and for this reason the instrument scan always starts and ends with the attitude indicator. The most common type of scan is known as the selective radial scan. Why? It is selective because only the instruments most important for the manoeuvre are selected and prioritised. It is radial because the scan is centred on the attitude indicator and moves radially out to another instrument, before moving back to the attitude indicator In straight and level flight, for instance, the most important instruments are: The AI (which indicates that the wings are level and the correct pitch attitude for straight and level is set) The altimeter (which confirms that the height is constant) The heading indicator (which confirms that heading is constant -- further, if the wings are also level it follows that the aircraft must also be substantially in balance) A simple scan for straight and level flight, therefore, could be AI - altimeter - AI - heading indicator - AI, and so on. Of course, it is prudent to also periodically scan the other instruments, but only perhaps every fifth or tenth cycle, for instance. A typical scan for straight and level flight. Note the emphasis placed on the AI, altimeter and heading indicator. What about a level turn? Again, the AI remains of prime importance to set the bank and pitch attitude, and the altimeter remains important to ensure height is being maintained. The turn and slip indicator is also important in order to maintain balance and rate of turn. However, if we are changing heading significantly, it is probably not necessary to scan the heading indicator at a high rate initially. For instance, in a standard rate turn of 3° per second, a 180° turn will take one minute: so initially we might only scan the heading indicator occasionally. However, as the target heading is approached we would want to scan the heading indicator increasingly frequently in order to ensure we roll out accurately. Remember, the proficient instrument pilot is always looking at relevant information. Typical scan for maintaining a level turn at constant bank angle. Note that the heading indicator will also need to be scanned increasingly frequently as the target heading is approached. Other useful scans include the vertical scan - used, for example, when referencing an enroute chart or other document - or the more relaxed circular scan, which may be used to monitor the aircraft’s performance in cruising flight, perhaps with the autopilot engaged. The vertical scan (left) and circular scan (right) may be used enroute when navigating, or in the case of the circular scan, to monitor the aircraft's performance when the autopilot is engaged Another type of scan is the inverted V scan. This scan - covering the AI, turn and slip indicator and VSI - may be used if an instrument failure is suspected, as the three instruments scanned are typically driven by independent systems. In many aircraft the AI gyro is vacuum-driven, whilst the gyro for the turn indicator is electrically driven. The VSI, meanwhile, uses the static system. As a result, a failure of any one of these systems would result in two out of the three instruments agreeing whilst the instrument driven by the failed system would show a discrepancy. The 'inverted V scan' is useful for determining if an instrument has failed Scanning Mistakes Apart from trying to look at too much at once, perhaps the most common error in scanning is fixation. For instance, the pilot may stare at the heading indicator, wondering how the heading has drifted ten degrees away from the target, missing that the aircraft has entered a climb. It is important to keep your eyes moving and keep seeking relevant information for the manoeuvre you are flying. Building an effective instrument scan is rather like reading a book, or this article -- rather than reading each individual letter, you are instead scanning and interpreting the words and sentences as a whole. In the same way the proficient instrument pilot will read the panel as a whole, rather than each individual instrument in isolation. In the next article in this series, we’ll look at putting the instrument scan in to practice with some basic flight manoeuvres and techniques.
  2. Hello I am sharing with you, this videtutorial, explaining how to fly the Eclipse 550. The flight is a full flight from Barcelona to Marseille, with ILS landing, using real charts and proceeding with the TAXI, FMC programming and everything, also using the ATC. The video is extensively explained with SUBTITLES IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH, also try to reproduce the original call outs when taking off and landing. The videotutorial is also in High Definition, so you can enjoy it in your computer screen or even your SmartTV. I hope you like the video, and share it if you like it. Cheers
  3. riccardo74

    EDDL, RNAV 05R Approach

    Hi guys, yesterday I landed my Leonardo MD80 in EDDL via RNAV 05R approach in FSX Stem Edition. This is the approach plate: https://fly.rocketroute.com/plates/adminview/EDDL_3-1-5_GPS___FMS_RNAV_Arrival_Chart_Transition_to_Final_Approach_%28Overlay_to_Radar_Vector_Pattern%29_RWY_05L_05R.pdf?cmd=pdf&docid=400000000096018&icao=EDDL Starting from DOMUX at FL140 down till to FAF NATOS to 3000' The strange thing is this: when I do the final right turn base to align with 05R (always following lateral navigation with FMC NAV TRK) the aircraft was completely misaligned with runway 05R (I arrive parallel to 05R and not aligned to) so I can't capture the LOC and was unable to capture G/S beacause I'm also too high, but I'm correctly at 3000' as indicated in the approach plate and confirmed in the altimeter. In your opinion is there a problem with default scenery EDDL in FSX? I suppose is not an aircraft issue. Has anyone tried this approach? Thank so much for your help, Riccardo
  4. Hello everyone, I am trying to "simulate" air taxi service between tropical islands. This is short and great way to flight However, i would like to make a proper and well-planned flight, since i am going to do it online on IVAO. My preferred A/C is DHC-6 Twin Otter. My departure is FSIA Mahe Island and arrival is FSPP Praslin. Well dep/arr is vicinity of Seychelles. There are many islands with small airports and airfields. My questions are below (i know there are too many!) 1- Should i go for IFR or VFR? Weather is almost always clear, wind is calm and visibility is good near Seychelles. How to decide? 2- How to select a cruising altitude for VFR? I read AIP/AIS of Seychelles, seems like its provide all information needed. Is that right way to start planning? 3- Is that possible to use ILS approach on VFR flight plan? Is this a VFR -> IFR or VFR -> VFR flight? 4- I am going to do same flight with Cessna 172. It does have all necessary equipment for IFR as far i know, so i can go for IFR, right? 5- I am little bit confused about terms IFR, VFR and Visual. Does Visual approach changes flightplan to VFR? As far i know, Visual Approach is a part of IFR. So flightplan should be stay same, right? Why and when Visual Approach needed? Is this possible to do Visual Approach on ILS runway? (Ignoring ILS and doing whole thing visually) So is this possible to do Visual Approach in VFR flight? What's the equivalent of Visual Approach in VFR? Or am i getting this completely wrong? As i understand, Viisual Approach is the VFR's itself. Because whole thing visual. So how about opposite scenerio? Can i use ILS approach on VFR? And does it changes flightplan to VFR->IFR? Any help and idea would be great. Thank you all.
  5. So here it is: my first ever flight sim tutorial released on Youtube. Let me know what you think. I tried to make it as professional as possible, both piloting and video wise.
  6. So I am having a problem. FSX ATC is trying to take me to vectors to ILS at a runway, but I want to use the one I have on my FMC instead. Is there a way to make the ATC follow my route, or can I figure out which STAR it is trying to take me to so that way I can put it in my FMC?
  7. Hello In this videotutorial we are showing how to proceed with a VOR flight, understanding how to deal with the HSI - Horizontal Situation Indicator, and also how to understand the CDI - Course Deviation Indicator. The videotutorial explain how to understand VOR navigation, as regard to radials and how to use radials to orientate our aircrafct to or from the VOR. It explain also what are TO or FROM navigation modes, and how to use our aircraft to orientate to certain radials flying to or from a VOR and also using other VOR to get our aircraft oriented to those VOR. The videotutorial explain also what is a DME - Distance Measure Equipment and is full of practical examples, explained in full detail. We have developed it in High Definition, so you can enjoy it also in your Smart TV, Tablet, PC and mobile phones. Cheers ENGLISH AUDIO SPANISH AUDIO
  8. Howellerman

    My First Forays Into IFR

    Greetings, This is not meant to be instructive, by any measure. Instead, I hope to convey some of the ... ahem... pleasure I encountered from a guy that normally flies GA VFR attempting to fly GA IFR. A succinct summary would be: Please expedite your climb.. Please expedite your descent... Hand off to Norcal/Oakland/Auckland/Tralfamador Hand off to Tralfamador/Auckland/Oakland/Norcal Please expedite... And my favorite, after I ignored a go-around (I was tired), "Did you hear my last transmission..." I could have sworn the guy got testy with me... What a nag!!! This is all with the bog-standard ATC in P3Dv3. I may have made an unfortunate choice in aircraft/scenario, in that My first attempt was from Christchurch to Auckland in a Phenom 300. I thought the AI traffic program (free from Orbx) would add to the immersion - it added, alright, but may have been too much of a good thing. I was listening to ATC talk with other aircraft, but I was 14 minutes out at FL310 and nobody was telling me to descend. Is this normal? I manually descended by asking for lower flight levels, and actually successfully landed in Auckland without killing anybody despite a 3,000 fpm descent. Whew! My second attempt was with the Flysimware Lear 35 (a great fun airplane, by the way - a total hot-rod) from San Jose to Portland. Jeezus. I was conservative, I was cautious, but still failed. After the fourth hand-off and climb instruction (is this normal?) I pulled the chute somewhere over the Bay. Maybe I should have tried IFR with the Turbine Duke or a slower aircraft? Certainly, the Learjet can get away from you quickly, and the added AI traffic from the Orbx OZ package can complicate things. The T-Duke is slower, but still can ... expedite ... climbs and descents. IFR flying feels like somebody is beating me with a ball peen hammer compared to VFR. The enjoyment of a leisurely turn to starboard at 1,500 fpm is gone. Instead, I have a Task Master who wants me to expedite. I do love the lady's voices, though. Is this normal?